QUESTION: I would like clarification on some of the comments from the recent blog posting as described below.
Statement 2: What differences between the vertebrae will the students be asked to distinguish?
ANSWER: Considering this is an event for lower elementary students, we expect them to know just the basic differences that help distinguish the three types of vertebrae, For example body size and shape, function, location, characteristic of spinous processes, foramen, and/or facets
Statement 8: I believe it is Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis and not Juvenile Insidious Arthritis.
ANSWER: Thanks. The corrections have already been made.
Statement 12: At the coaches meeting, it was stated that the students only need to know that Sharpey’s fibers are associated with the periosteum. Is that still the case? Are they responsible for knowing the details posted on the blog?
ANSWER: Yes. Students need to know that Sharpey’s fibers are associated with the periosteum. And yes, students are responsible for the details on the BLOG:
Statement 16: At the coaches meeting, it was stated that the students do not need to know about animal skeletons or comparisons between human and animal skeletons. Please list any and all differences/similarities that the students will need to know.
ANSWER: Students only need to know the similarities/differences mentioned in Slide 12 – uniquely human movement.
Statement 19: At the coaches meeting, it was stated that students are only expected to name joints by the common names such as hip and shoulder. Please provide a list of the scientific names of the joints and the associated common names that the students are expected to know for the event.
Blog 19 has been clarified to state: Students will be expected to know the scientific name for the types of synovial joints, how the joints move, and where they can be found as per Slides 11 & 12.
For example, students need to know that an ellipsoid joint moves side to side and back & forth, and that it can be found in the wrist. They can identify the wrist as the radiocarpal joint, but it is not required. We will accept either answer (wrist or radiocarpal joint) as correct.
QUESTION: In regard to the differences between the second and third grade, please clarify and provide specific details as mentioned below.
- Please list the parts of the long bone that the second grade and the third grade students are each expected to know.
ANSWER: In addition to parts of the bone listed in the Study Guide, third graders need to know and identify the Epiphysis (distal and proximal), Diaphysis, Medullary cavity, and the Epiphyseal line.
- Please list the stages of bone repair that the students are expected to know.
ANSWER: Third graders are expected to know the four stages of bone repair at a very basic level.
- Please list the concepts about the cellular structure of the long bone that the second grade and third grade students are each expected to know
ANSWER: Second and third graders will be expected to know the difference between compact and spongy bone. They are also expected to know the 3 main types of bone cells. Third graders will be asked about the difference between the different bone cells in more details. For example, third graders may have to visually identify the three different bone cells.
- Please list the non-synovial joints that the students are expected to know.
ANSWER: Third graders are expected to know
Syndesmosis joints: join long bones with connective tissue; for example radius/ulna, tibia/fibula.
Sutural joints: join skull bones, no connective tissue, but Sharpey’s fibers.
- Please list the tendons and the ligaments that the students are expected to know.
ANSWER: Third graders are expected to know the basic differences between tendons and ligaments, i.e., what they attach to and how they function.
- In regard to the structure and function of a bursa, the powerpoint states that bursa are in the joint capsule. Bursae are located near the joint, but not within capsule. Please list the details that the students are expected to know for the event.
ANSWER: Thanks, the correction has been made to the Study Guide.
Students need to know that Bursae are small fluid filled sacs located at tissue sites where tendons or muscles pass over bony prominences near joints and that they act as a cushion between the bone and muscle or tendon, which helps movement and reduces friction between moving parts.
- Please list the specific types, locations and the functions of cartilage that the students are expected to know.
ANSWER: While there are 3 types of cartilage, 3rd graders will only need to know 2 types: Hyaline cartilage - most common, a precursor of bone, can be found between ribs and sternum, end of the nose, in movable joints. and
Fibrocartilage - highly compressible, very strong, can be found in intervertebral discs, joint capsules, ligaments, and tendon-bone interfaces."